Dicecards supports a full set of six polyhedral dice, in individual colors for easy lookup.
As for all the random elements, some dice may not appear on every card. The d20 is the most absent, for example, appearing on 40 cards. If the first card you draw does not have the die you want, then draw again until you see it (you're not allowed to keep drawing until you get the roll you want though!).
We'd need 100 cards to have a d%, so instead use the d10. Draw two cards: the first card is your tens, and the second your units. A roll of 00 is 100 (so if you roll a zero first, there's that moment of excitement to see if you'll bomb out or ace the roll). Statistically, you should reshuffle the deck between drawing the tens and units, but most people don't, and the effect on your roll is only tiny: the chance of rolling a pair of the same numbers (100, 11, 22, 33, etc) drops from 10% to just over 8%. If you're playing the Rolemaster RPG, this will decrease your chance of a critical hit, but in most other games will have no noticable effect.